Back

Description

Ophthalmology (/ˌɒfθælˈmɒlədʒi/ or /ˌɒpθælˈmɒlədʒi/) is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye disease. Their credentials include a doctorate degree in medicine, followed by an additional four years of Ophthalmology residency training. They may or may not receive residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery before the ophthalmology residency. Additional training may be sought through a fellowship in a particular specialty of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to medically treat eye disease, implement laser therapy, and perform surgery when needed. Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders.

 

In the Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt dating to 1550 BC, a section is devoted to eye diseases. The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism. They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon (5th century BC) and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain by a tube. Aristotle advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He and his contemporaries further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull.

 

The Greek physician Rufus of Ephesus (1st century AD) recognized a more modern eye, with conjunctiva, extending as a fourth epithelial layer over the eye. Rufus was the first to recognize a two-chambered eye, with one chamber from cornea to lens (filled with water), the other from lens to retina (filled with an egg white-like substance). Celsus the Greek philosopher of the 2nd century AD gave a detailed description of cataract surgery by the couching method.

 

The Greek physician Galen (2nd century AD) remedied some mistakes including the curvature of the cornea and lens, the nature of the optic nerve, and the existence of a posterior chamber. Though this model was a roughly correct modern model of the eye, it contained errors. Still, it was not advanced upon again until after Vesalius. A ciliary body was then discovered and the sclera, retina, choroid, and cornea were seen to meet at the same point. The two chambers were seen to hold the same fluid, as well as the lens being attached to the choroid. Galen continued the notion of a central canal, but he dissected the optic nerve and saw that it was solid. He mistakenly counted seven optical muscles, one too many. He also knew of the tear ducts.

Scope of Research

Research Scope Areas are…

Cataract Lens
Glaucoma Ocular inflammation
Uveitis Ocular tumors
Retinitis Retinal imaging
Conjunctivitis Fluorescein angiography
Optometry Orbital surgery
Strabismus Dry eye syndrome
Spatial vision Blepharitis

 

Note: If your research work does not match the scope of the journal please forward us your research area. The same will be forwarded to our Editorial Board and upon approval, we can add it to our scope and add the same to our list.

Screening Team

Submit Your Research Article

Published Articles